This idea is truly risky, but if students don’t agree with the results, the hospital doors are always open. They will be given a sample they can keep; they can ask for another testing from other professional persons. Plus, it has been four years since this article was posted, meaning the professors and specialists already spent more than four years preparing for this mass genetic testing program. They must be very ready by now, and I guess students are, too, for this year’s batch will be the first to be analyzed. I hope it will be a success for Berkeley, considering all the negative assumptions of people from different universities and hospitals.
College Bound, DNA Swab in Hand
By TAMAR LEWIN
Published: May 18, 2010
Instead of the usual required summer-reading book, this year’s incoming freshmen at the University of California, Berkeley, will get something quite different: a cotton swab on which they can, if they choose, send in a DNA sample.
Winfried Rothermel/Associated Press
The university said it would analyze the samples, from inside students’ cheeks, for three genes that help regulate the ability to metabolize alcohol, lactose and folates.
Those genes were chosen not because they indicate serious health risks but because students with certain genetic markers may be able to lead healthier lives by drinking less, avoiding dairy products or eating more leafy green vegetables.
Berkeley’s program for the class of 2014 is the first mass genetic testing by a university. Jasper Rine, the professor of genetics who is leading the project, said it was designed to help students learn about personalized medicine and identify their own vulnerabilities.
“The history of medical genetics has been the history of finding bad things,” he said. “But in the future, I think nutritional genomics is probably going to be the sweet spot.”
The testing will be voluntary and confidential, with no one at Berkeley knowing which sample comes from which student.
Each freshman will get two bar code labels, one to put on the sample and one to keep. After the genotyping is complete, the results will be posted on a Web site using the bar code identification, so only the person who provided the DNA sample will know whose it is.
“In the decade ahead, the new genetics is going to penetrate everyday medical practice,” said Mark Schlissel, dean of biology at Berkeley. “We wanted to give students a sense of what’s coming, through genes that can provide them with useful information. I think it’s one of the best things we’ve done in years.”
But some bioethicists say the whole idea of genetic testing outside a medical setting is troubling.
“It’s a bad precedent to set up mass testing without some sort of counseling support,” said Arthur Caplan, director of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. “I’d rather people get their results in a medical setting, where they can ask questions about the error rate or the chances of passing it on to their children, and not just see it posted on some Web site.”
Dr. Schlissel said that he understood the concern about counseling but that he believed it applied mostly to testing for genetic diseases, not necessarily the relatively innocuous gene variants that Berkeley is looking for.
Berkeley, like many colleges, has for several years tried to create a common intellectual experience for new students by assigning a summer reading book. Last year, freshmen and transfer students in its College of Letters and Sciences received “The Omnivore’s Dilemma,” By Michael Pollan.
But for the class of 2014, the program will be especially ambitious. After the genetic testing, the university will offer a campuswide lecture by Mr. Rine about the three genetic markers, along with other lectures and panels with philosophers, ethicists, biologists and statisticians exploring the benefits and risks of personal genomics.
There will also be a contest in which students who submit creative entries on the theme will have a chance to win further genetic testing from 23andMe, a private company that offers DNA profiling.
Berkeley has not yet chosen a company to analyze the DNA samples, but Dr. Schlissel said it was unlikely to be 23andMe. Estimates are $35,000 to $40,000 per 1,000 samples.
While the Berkeley professors see the gene testing as relatively harmless, others say that all genetic knowledge carries risks.
“They may think these are noncontroversial genes, but there’s nothing noncontroversial about alcohol on campus,” said George Annas, a bioethicist at the Boston University School of Public Health. “What if someone tests negative, and they don’t have the marker, so they think that means they can drink more? Like all genetic information, it’s potentially harmful.”
We had film showings in Math class during the final term. It was one great way to relieve stress from all those numbers and formulae.
Ma. Hyacinth C. Estidola March 13, 2013
BS PSY 1B Math 114
This is a very unlikely movie. It depicts “a place where time has become currency.” People stop aging at the age of 25. Luminous green digital clocks appear on their left arms afterwards. It shows the time they have left, as well as their money. The succeeding parts are five scenes that either bother or amaze me.
Not everybody sought for eternal life. A rich man named Henry Hamilton had 116 years on his clock, but he was displeased with it. He did not want to live that long; He wanted to die already. He was just waiting for people to steal his time from him, which is why he kept going to the ghetto, flashing his left arm. But Will Salas, the main protagonist, said,
“If I have all that time, I’ll make sure it won’t be wasted.”
Those words made up the kind-hearted, rich man’s mind. After making Will drink too much, he transferred all of his time to him, leaving 5 minutes to himself to prepare for his death. I feel sorry, and happy as well, for Henry’s character. The former is because he had the kind of life that everyone yearns for, but it wasn’t the kind that he wanted. The latter since despite of his troubled mind, he still thought of entrusting his time to a person whom he believed would spend it worthily.
I truly can’t understand what kind of mind Borel had. He was Will’s best friend. Upon receiving a century from Henry, Will went to his house to give him 10 years, which represents a decade of their friendship. When he returned to ask for some, he saw his wife, who was a very happy woman the last time he saw her, now agonized for the loss of Borel. She told him he drank himself to death. What could have been his reason for doing that? He wasn’t a drunkard; He had a good personality. How could he waste the decade of life that he already has? How could he leave his wife and newborn? It really troubles me.
Mr. Will Salas Sr. was an arm fighter when he was still living. He had a trick for winning time contests: Let the other win at first.. They get overconfident and distracted just as the last few seconds run down.. Then flip the arm and the flow reverses. I liked how he managed to do what his father does before. He timed out Fortis, the leader of the gang who steals time from anyone in the ghetto, using the trick he learnt from his father, and killed the rest of the Minutemen. The trick applies to reality as well.
The moment I realized the relation of the two following scenes and the actuality it suggests, I became sad ans furious. First was the 50th birthday of Will’s mother. She had 1 hour and 30 minutes left by the time she left the office. When she rode the bus, she knew that the fare had already increased to 2 hours. She pleaded, but the bus driver did not let her in and the passengers were unconcerned. She ran as fast as she could. Will also did as soon as the bus arrived without her. They were just inches apart when his mother timed out and died. The other was when the Timekeeper was chasing Will and Sylvia Weis, his love interest. They rode a bus. The driver instantly recognized them since their faces were posted there as Wanted, but Will bribed him with a huge amount of time so he allowed them to get in. Does everybody understand what these scenes are trying to tell us? The world is already blinded by the power of money. People had instilled in their minds that we have this certain hierarchy, though we don’t. The poor are deprived of their rights; The rich enjoys everything life has to offer. His mother was just a simple being who did not have enough, plus the fact that she isn’t a suspect for any crime. Sylvia and Will were obviously felonious, but they were permitted because they had more than enough.
The partners-in-crime’s actions were similar to Robinhood’s. They robbed Weis bank and ordered every person around to get as many time cassettes as they could. They opened the large vault of Phillipe Weis, Sylvia’s father who happened to be the richest man in the world, containing a single cassette with 1 million years in it, and gave it to the time lender. Before leaving Mr. Weis, Will told him that
“No one should be immortal if even one person has to die.”
That is the best quote I heard that pertains to equality.
The first thought that came into my mind as I read the title was, “like cloning?” Brain said yes as I read the words synthetic biology. I’m not sure if I am misconceiving the whole article because of what I initially thought of. If these procedures are for purposes alike cloning, then I am certainly out.
Recreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networks
Date: September 23, 2014
Source: Center for Genomic Regulation
Pattern formation is essential in the development of animals and plants. The central problem in pattern formation is how can genetic information be translated in a reliable manner to give specific spatial patterns of cellular differentiation.
The French-flag model of stripe formation is a classic paradigm in developmental biology. Cell differentiation, represented by the different colours of the French flag, is caused by a gradient of a signalling molecule (morphogen); i.e. at high, middle or low concentrations of the morphogen a “blue,” “white” or “red” gene stripe is activated, respectively. How cellular gene regulatory networks (GRNs) respond to the morphogen, in a concentration-dependent manner, is a pivotal question in developmental biology. Synthetic biology is a promising new tool to study the function and properties of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) by building them from first principles. This study developed synthetic biology methods to build some of the fundamental mechanisms behind stripe formation.
“We have performed a very innovative and ambitious study: we applied a three-step approach for the effective exploration and creation of successful synthetic gene circuits. We created a theoretical framework to study the GRNs exhaustively” — 100,000 versions of over 2800 networks were simulated on the computer. We then successfully developed a synthetic network engineering system and, finally, we confirmed all the new experimental data by fitting it to a single mathematical model” explains the corresponding author James Sharpe.
First, Andreea Munteanu, co-author of the study, performed a theoretical screen for finding all design classes that produce the desired behaviour (stripe formation in a morphogen gradient). During this step she discovered four fundamentally-different mechanisms for forming a stripe. Next, Yolanda Schaerli, first author of the study, successfully demonstrated that the four networks are functional by building them in the bacteria E. coli using the tools of synthetic biology. The third step was to verify the distinct mechanisms by fitting all the experimental data to a mathematical model.
The success of this procedure allowed the researchers to go one step further to find a deeper design principle of stripe formation. They identified a simpler 2-node network — where the stripe gene is directly controlled by both activation and repression from the morphogen sensor gene- that replicates the stripe-forming ability in its simplest form. They were successful in building this archetype of stripe forming networks and ultimately discovered that it can even display an “anti-stripe” phenotype (fig. 2).
“Combining exhaustive computational modeling with synthetic biology is more efficient and powerful than building networks one-by-one” says the corresponding author Mark Isalan. “Our approach provides a new and efficient recipe for synthetic biology — a new scientific discipline which aims to engineer all kinds of useful biological systems.”
This article is so interesting I would like to make further researches on other scientists’ explanations. I bet they themselves had amplified enthusiasms the moment they heard about this case. I also want to know why this happened, how come it was possible, and at what percentage do they think it could happen to other identical twins. This case is truly mystifying.
Identical twins, one case of Down syndrome: a genetic mystery
April 16, 2014 | By Melissa Healy
A rare occurrence in the earliest days of a pregnancy produces an unusual and mystifying outcome: Identical twin fetuses are conceived of the same meeting of egg and sperm. And despite their shared DNA, one of the twins has Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual impairment), but the other does not.
For those who labor to understand how 3 billion base pairs of DNA result in the complexity of a single human, it’s difficult to discern what effect an extra chromosome has on gene expression across the genome: from individual to individual, there’s just too much natural variation for comparisons between two people to reveal truths that apply to all.
But these aborted identical twins — one with an extra copy of chromosome 21 and the other without — offered scientists a remarkable opportunity: given the twin fetuses’ otherwise exact DNA match, how would this one difference translate across the genome?